The cornea is the transparent window covering the front part of the eye. It focuses light on the retina for clear vision. It is so clear that you may not even realize it is there. The cornea is like a watch glass that covers the inner structures of the eye like the iris, pupil and lens.
The B B Eye Foundation comprises of a dynamic team of Cornea sub-specialty Ophthalmologists who are skilled in the latest medical and surgical care of patients with corneal, external eye and anterior segment diseases. Tertiary referral services are provided for both local and international patients from various countries with these conditions.
After minor injuries or scratches, the cornea usually heals on its own. Deeper injuries can cause corneal scarring, resulting in a haze on the cornea that impairs vision. If you have a deep injury, or a corneal disease or disorder, you could experience:
If you experience any of these symptoms, seek help from an eye care professional.
The most common allergies that affect the eye are those related to pollen, particularly when the weather is warm and dry. Symptoms in the eye include redness, itching, tearing, burning, stinging, and watery discharge, although usually not severe enough to require medical attention. Antihistamine decongestant eyedrops effectively reduce these symptoms. Rain and cooler weather, which decreases the amount of pollen in the air, can also provide relief. For more information see Facts about Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis).
Keratitis is an inflammation of the cornea. Noninfectious keratitis can be caused by a minor injury, or from wearing contact lenses too long. Infection is the most common cause of keratitis. Infectious keratitis can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Often, these infections are also related to contact lens wear, especially improper cleaning of contact lenses or overuse of old contact lenses that should be discarded. Minor corneal infections are usually treated with antibacterial eye drops. If the problem is severe, it may require more intensive antibiotic or antifungal treatment to eliminate the infection, as well as steroid eye drops to reduce inflammation.
Dry eye is a condition in which the eye produces fewer or lower quality tears and is unable to keep its surface lubricated.
The main symptom of dry eye is usually a scratchy feeling or as if something is in your eye. Other symptoms include stinging or burning in the eye, episodes of excess tearing that follow periods of dryness, discharge from the eye, and pain and redness in the eye.
Sometimes people with dry eye also feel as if their eyelids are very heavy or their vision is blurred. For more detailed information about dry eye and its treatments, please see the NEI publication Facts about Dry Eye.
A corneal dystrophy is a condition in which one or more parts of the cornea lose their normal clarity due to a buildup of material that clouds the cornea. These diseases:
Corneal dystrophies affect vision in different ways. Some cause severe visual impairment, while a few cause no vision problems and are only discovered during a routine eye exam. Other dystrophies may cause repeated episodes of pain without leading to permanent vision loss. Some of the most common corneal dystrophies include keratoconus, Fuchs’ dystrophy, lattice dystrophy, and map-dot-fingerprint dystrophy.
Kerataconus is a progressive thinning of the cornea. It is the most common corneal dystrophy in the U.S., affecting one in every 2,000 Americans. It is most prevalent in teenagers and adults in their 20s.
Keratoconus causes the middle of the cornea to thin, bulge outward, and form a rounded cone shape. This abnormal curvature of the cornea can cause double or blurred vision, nearsightedness, astigmatism, and increased sensitivity to light.
The causes of keratoconus aren’t known, but research indicates it is most likely caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility along with environmental and hormonal influences. About 7 percent of those with the condition have a history of kerataconus in their family. Keratoconus is diagnosed with a slit-lamp exam. Your eye care professional will also measure the curvature of your cornea.
Keratoconus usually affects both eyes. At first, the condition is corrected with glasses or soft contact lenses. As the disease progresses, you may need specially fitted contact lenses to correct the distortion of the cornea and provide better vision.
In most cases, the cornea stabilizes after a few years without causing severe vision problems. A small number of people with keratoconus may develop severe corneal scarring or become unable to tolerate a contact lens. For these people, a corneal transplant may become necessary.
Fuchs’ dystrophy is a slowly progressing disease that usually affects both eyes and is slightly more common in women than in men. It can cause your vision to gradually worsen over many years, but most people with Fuchs’ dystrophy won’t notice vision problems until they reach their 50s or 60s.
Fuchs’ dystrophy is caused by the gradual deterioration of cells in the corneal endothelium; the causes aren’t well understood. Normally, these endothelial cells maintain a healthy balance of fluids within the cornea. Healthy endothelial cells prevent the cornea from swelling and keep the cornea clear. In Fuchs’ dystrophy, the endothelial cells slowly die off and cause fluid buildup and swelling within the cornea. The cornea thickens and vision becomes blurred.
As the disease progresses, Fuchs’ dystrophy symptoms usually affect both eyes and include:
The first step in treating Fuchs’ dystrophy is to reduce the swelling with drops, ointments, or soft contact lenses. If you have severe disease, your eye care professional may suggest a corneal transplant.
Lattice dystrophy gets its name from a characteristic lattice-like pattern of deposits in the stroma layer of the cornea. The deposits are made of amyloid, an abnormal protein fiber. Over time, the deposits increase and the lattice lines grow opaque, take over more of the stroma, and gradually converge to impair vision.
Although lattice dystrophy can occur at any time in life, it most commonly begins in childhood between the ages of 2 and 7. In some people, amyloid deposits can accumulate under the epithelium of the cornea. This can erode the epithelium, and cause a condition known as recurrent epithelial erosion. This erosion alters the cornea’s normal curvature and causes temporary vision problems. It can also expose the nerves that line the cornea and cause severe pain.
To ease this pain, an eye care professional may prescribe eye drops and ointments to reduce the friction of the eyelid against the cornea. In some cases, an eye patch may be used to immobilize the eyelid. The erosions usually heal within days, although you may have some pain for the next six to eight weeks.
By age 40, some people with lattice dystrophy have scarring under the epithelium that can impact vision to such an extent that the most effective treatment will be a corneal transplant. Although the early results of corneal transplantation are typically good, lattice dystrophy may reappear later and require long-term treatment.
Map-Dot-Fingerprint dystrophy, also known as epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, occurs when the basement membrane develops abnormally and forms folds in the tissue. The folds create gray shapes that look like continents on a map. There also may be clusters of opaque dots underneath or close to the maplike patches. Less frequently, the folds form concentric lines in the central cornea that resemble small fingerprints.
Symptoms include blurred vision, pain in the morning that lessens during the day, sensitivity to light, excessive tearing, and a feeling that there’s something in the eye.
Map-dot-fingerprint dystrophy usually occurs in both eyes and affects adults between the ages of 40 and 70, although it can develop earlier in life. Typically, map-dot-fingerprint dystrophy will flare up now and then over the course of several years and then go away, without vision loss. Some people can have map-dot-fingerprint dystrophy but not experience any symptoms.
Treatment for corneal injuries may include:
The cornea can heal itself from small injuries. If it gets injured, healthy cells quickly slide over and patch the wound before it causes infection or affects vision. But if a scratch causes a severe injury to the cornea, it will take longer to heal.
If your cornea is damaged by an injury, infection, or disease, the resulting scars can affect your vision and block or warp light as it enters your eye.
Most corneal abrasions heal within one to three days and seldom progress to corneal erosion or infection.
An increase in MMPs may result in abnormal or excessive degradation of the ECM, hindering corneal wound healing and causing RCEs. Other factors that delay corneal healing include smoking, diabetes, neurotrophic disease, and ocular surface disease. Studies indicate that distorted cell migration and proliferation signaling pathways and impaired corneal nerve function can delay corneal healing.
Your cornea generally heals itself after minor injuries or infections. However, during the healing process, you might notice symptoms like pain, blurred vision, redness, etc. If you face severe symptoms or other eye problems, you may need medical treatment.
Bowman's membrane helps the cornea maintain its shape, and if injured, this layer does not regenerate and may result in a scar.